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[edit] Summary


The KPML system is an ongoing development drawing on over a decade of experience in large-scale grammar development work for natural language generation (NLG). It is currently maintained at the University of Bremen, Faculty of Linguistics and Literature. The system is a graphically-based development environment for the construction, maintenance, and use of large-scale grammars written with the framework of Systemic-Functional Linguistics.

KPML offers a robust, mature platform for large-scale grammar engineering that is particularly oriented to multilingual grammar development and generation.Grammars have been developed using KPML for a variety of languages including English, German, Dutch, Chinese, Spanish, Russian, Bulgarian, and Czech. Many of these grammars are freely available for further research and development work within the NLG community. The English grammar is the very large Nigel grammar under development since the early 1980s in the PENMAN project at USC/ISI, Los Angeles.

A variety of configurations of KPML are available, suitable for use both by absolute beginners in a teaching environment and by large-scale grammar work. The variations are summarised on the main KPML page. KPML is written in ANSI Common Lisp, with the graphical interface in the Common Lisp Interface Manager (CLIM). The source code may be compiled and installed in full using commercial Common Lisp products supporting Common Lisp and CLIM under Unix and Windows. There are also standalone executable images available for Windows systems that may be downloaded and used without compilation and without requiring an additional Lisp software licence.


  1. Bateman, J. A. (1997). Enabling technology for multilingual natural language generation: the KPML development environment. Natural Language Engineering, 3(1), 15. Bib
  2. Bateman, J. A., Matthiessen, C. M. I. M., & Zeng, L. (1999). Multilingual natural language generation for multilingual software: a functional linguistic approach. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 13(6), 607. Bib
  3. Bateman, J. A., Matthiessen, C. M. I. M., Nanri, K., & Zeng, L. (1991). The re-use of linguistic resources across languages in multilingual generation components. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 1991 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Sydney, Australia, San Francisco, CA. Bib
  4. Bateman, J. A., & Sharoff, S. (1998). Multilingual grammars and multilingual lexicons for multilingual text generation. Paper presented at Multilinguality in the lexicon II, Brighton, U.K. Bib
Facts about KPMLRDF feed
Descriptionlarge-scale multilingual generation and development environment  +
Domainindependent  +
ForerunnerPENMAN  +
FrameworkSFG  +
LanguageEnglish  +, German  +, French  +, Dutch  +, Japanese  +, Czech  +, Russian  +, Bulgarian  +, Spanish  +, Greek  +, Chinese  +, and independent  +
NameKPML  +
Started1993  +
URL  +
WorkerBateman  +, Matthiessen  +, and Zeng  +
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