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[edit] Summary

  • System Name: POLLy
  • Short Description: POliteness in Language Learning
  • System Builders: Gupta, Walker, Romano[1][2][3]
  • Development Period: 2007–2008
  • Languages: English
  • Domain: ESL


The system contains a generalised mechanism for generating utterances and dialogues, drawing on a sociolinguistics theory of politeness. It combines a Spoken Language Generator (using full NLG techniques) with an AI planner to model linguistic politeness in collaborative task oriented dialogue with the ultimate goal of providing a stimulating environment and a fun way for learning politeness in English as a Second Language (ESL).

Dialogues are demonstrated within Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA) capable of dialogues with human ESL learners, interacting with them using spoken language to practice politeness in role play situations.


  1. Gupta, S., Walker, M. A., & Romano, D. M. 2007. How Rude are You?: Evaluating Politeness and Affect in Interaction. Bib
  2. Gupta, S., Walker, M., & Romano, D. (2007). Generating Politeness in Task Based Interaction: An Evaluation of the Effect of Linguistic Form and Culture. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Eleventh European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG 07), Saarbrücken, Germany. Bib
  3. Gupta, S., Walker, M. A., & Romano, D. M. (2008). Using a Shared Representation to Generate Action and Social Language for a Virtual Dialogue Environment. Paper presented at Proceedings of the AAAI Spring Symposium on Emotion, Personality and Social Behavior, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. Bib
Facts about PollyRDF feed
DescriptionPOliteness in Language Learning  +
DomainESL  +
Ended2008  +
LanguageEnglish  +
NamePOLLy  +
Started2007  +
WorkerGupta  +, Walker  +, and Romano  +
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