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  • System Name: D2S
  • Short Description: System for producing spoken language from data
  • System Builders: Theune, Klabbers, Odijk, de Pijper, Krahmer[1]
  • Development Period: 1998–ongoing
  • Languages: independent
  • Domain: spoken dialogue
  • Theoretical framework: Templates
  • Forerunner: LGM


D2S is a system for the creation of data-to-speech systems in different languages and domains. The most important characteristic of a data-to-speech system is that it combines language and speech generation: language generation is used to produce a natural language text expressing the system's input data, and speech generation is used to make this text audible. In D2S, this combination is exploited by using linguistic information available in the language generation module for the computation of prosody. This allows us to achieve a better prosodic output quality than can be achieved in a plain text-to-speech system. For language generation in D2S, the use of syntactically enriched templates is guided by knowledge of the discourse context, while for speech generation pre-recorded phrases are combined in a prosodically sophisticated manner. This combination of techniques makes it possible to create linguistically sound but efficient systems with high quality language and speech output.


  1. Theune, M., Klabbers, E., Odijk, J., de Pijper, J. R., & Krahmer, E. (2001). From data to speech: a general approach. Natural Language Engineering, 7(1), 47. Bib
Facts about D2SRDF feed
DescriptionSystem for producing spoken language from data  +
Domainspoken dialogue  +
ForerunnerLGM  +
FrameworkTemplates  +
Languageindependent  +
NameD2S  +
Started1998  +
WorkerTheune  +, Klabbers  +, Odijk  +, De Pijper  +, and Krahmer  +
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